The atomic frequency standard has a heating element (58) surrounding an enclosure (43) which defines a microwave resonance cavity (42) The heating element supplies heat to an absorption cell (41) located in the cavity The absorption cell (41) is surrounded by electrodes (45a-45d) which act to enhance and orient the oscillating magnetic field in the region of the absorption cell...

The Excelitas Model RFS-10 Rubidium Frequency Standard is a miniature MIL-Spec rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard with a standard size and interface This advanced design of atomic clock features rugged construction, modular design and low operating power ,...

The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, Jacques Vanier & Claude Audoin, Adam Hilger, 1989 The ultimate treatise on the physics of atomic frequency standards in a two volume boxed set at over 2100 pages (and costing more than any book I've seen this side of a Gutenberg Bible)...

Oct 31, 1978· McCoubrey, in his article "A Survey of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proceedings of the IEEE, February 1966, pages 124, 133, referred to size, weight and cost as the principal limitations to usefulness of the hydrogen maser...

It is an overstatement to suggest that the history of atomic frequency standards is linked with 20th century physics in any complete sense But, there is a very remarkable connection between the evolution of atomic frequency standards and the foundation of what has come to be known as modern physics...

An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element...

The last comprehensive survey on atomic frequency standards was done by McCoubrey [1] This survey reviews the more recent historical background of atomic frequency standards leading to the ....

In the case of passive atomic frequency standard, we take an atomic reference which has a resonant frequency response centered at certain particular frequency Then we take a local oscillator and tune its frequency to that particular frequency using certain servo control mechanisms...

Andrew D Ludlow 1;2, Martin M Boyd 3, Jun Ye 1 JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA , is the basic idea behind atomic frequency standards and clocks In this review, we focus on frequency standards that...

The Atomic Frequency Standards group at INRIM generates and maintains in Italy the unit of Time in the International System of Units (SI), i e the second (s) This is based on atomic transitions of the Caesium atom and is realised by a cryogenic Cs-fountain atomic clock...

Cesium Atomic Clock The current time standard for the United States is a cesium atomic frequency standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado In 1967 a standard second was adopted based on the frequency of a transition in the Cs-133 atom:...

An atomic frequency standard comprising a cell arranged in the radiation path between a light source and a light sensitive signal generating means Both the light source and the cell contain alkali metal vapor A cavity resonator surrounds the cell Means are provided for coupling one resonator to a frequency controllable oscillator...

Abstract: The last comprehensive survey on atomic frequency standards was done by McCoubrey [1] This survey reviews the more recent historical background of atomic frequency standards leading to the present developments A discussion of the underlying physical and engineering principles is given...

A rubidium standard or rubidium atomic clock is a frequency standard in which a specified hyperfine transition of electrons in rubidium-87 atoms is used to control the output frequency It is the most inexpensive, compact, and widely produced atomic clock, ....

Cesium (caesium) Standard: The cesium standard is the primary standard of time/frequency It is the standard maintained by over 250+ atomic stations around the world for keeping the UTC The commercially available primary standards have an accuracy of ± 1 in 10 11...

Prior to working Cesium beam frequency standards the official meter was defined by an invar rod (ie a real physical standard) Today a meter is defined based on the distance that light travels in ,...

An introductory review of atomic frequency standards can be found in reference 44, and reference 45 is a review of the literature up to 1983 (Reference 44 reviews both atomic and quartz frequency standards; the report you are reading is based on the quartz portion of that document)...

The survey reviews the historical background and development of atomic frequency standards leading to the most recent achievements A qualitative discussion of underlying principles is also included...

in atomic frequency standards Its design provides the lowest phase noise, greatest versatility, and easiest path to system integration of any rubidium frequency standard available PRS10 Operation and Design All commercial rubidium frequency standards operate by disciplining a crystal oscillator to the hyperfine transition at...

The NRC performs in-house calibrations on a variety of instruments such as commercial cesium atomic frequency standards, rubidium frequency standards, quartz oscillators, signal generators, synthesizers, and electronic counters and timers...

TDA Progress Report 42-91 Atomic Frequency Standards for Ultra-High-Frequency Stability L Maleki, J D Prestage, and G J Dick Communications Systems Research Section In this article, the general features of the l99Hg+ trapped-ion frequency standard are...

The development of atomic frequency standards at NIST is discussed and three of the key frequency-standard technologies of the current era are described For each of these technologies, the most recent NIST implementation of the particular type of standard is described in greater detail...

Get atomic frequency references at a fraction of the cost, using Model 1083B GPS Satellite-Controlled Frequency Standard/Comparator Suitable for use as the frequency reference for counters and signal generators, or for multiplication to microwave frequencies, Model 1083B features standard sine wave outputs of 1 Mhz, 5 Mhz and 10 Mhz with outstanding spectral purity and long-term stability...

## Comments

## US5387881A

The atomic frequency standard has a heating element (58) surrounding an enclosure (43) which defines a microwave resonance cavity (42) The heating element supplies heat to an absorption cell (41) located in the cavity The absorption cell (41) is surrounded by electrodes (45a-45d) which act to enhance and orient the oscillating magnetic field in the region of the absorption cell...

## Rubidium Frequency Standard: RFS

The Excelitas Model RFS-10 Rubidium Frequency Standard is a miniature MIL-Spec rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard with a standard size and interface This advanced design of atomic clock features rugged construction, modular design and low operating power ,...

## Time & Frequency Books and References

The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, Jacques Vanier & Claude Audoin, Adam Hilger, 1989 The ultimate treatise on the physics of atomic frequency standards in a two volume boxed set at over 2100 pages (and costing more than any book I've seen this side of a Gutenberg Bible)...

## Atomic standard with reduced size and weight

Oct 31, 1978· McCoubrey, in his article "A Survey of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proceedings of the IEEE, February 1966, pages 124, 133, referred to size, weight and cost as the principal limitations to usefulness of the hydrogen maser...

## History of Atomic Frequency Standards: A Trip ,

It is an overstatement to suggest that the history of atomic frequency standards is linked with 20th century physics in any complete sense But, there is a very remarkable connection between the evolution of atomic frequency standards and the foundation of what has come to be known as modern physics...

## Atomic clock

An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element...

## An Introduction to Frequency Standards

atomic frequency standards,quartz oscillators Created Date: 00000101000000Z ....

## Atomic Frequency Standards: A Survey

The last comprehensive survey on atomic frequency standards was done by McCoubrey [1] This survey reviews the more recent historical background of atomic frequency standards leading to the ....

## atomic physics

In the case of passive atomic frequency standard, we take an atomic reference which has a resonant frequency response centered at certain particular frequency Then we take a local oscillator and tune its frequency to that particular frequency using certain servo control mechanisms...

## Andrew D Ludlow , Martin M Boyd

Andrew D Ludlow 1;2, Martin M Boyd 3, Jun Ye 1 JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA , is the basic idea behind atomic frequency standards and clocks In this review, we focus on frequency standards that...

## Atomic Frequency Standards

The Atomic Frequency Standards group at INRIM generates and maintains in Italy the unit of Time in the International System of Units (SI), i e the second (s) This is based on atomic transitions of the Caesium atom and is realised by a cryogenic Cs-fountain atomic clock...

## Atomic Frequency Standards: A Survey

IEEE Xplore Delivering full text access to the world's highest quality technical literature in engineering and technology...

## Atomic Clocks

Cesium Atomic Clock The current time standard for the United States is a cesium atomic frequency standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado In 1967 a standard second was adopted based on the frequency of a transition in the Cs-133 atom:...

## US3798565A

An atomic frequency standard comprising a cell arranged in the radiation path between a light source and a light sensitive signal generating means Both the light source and the cell contain alkali metal vapor A cavity resonator surrounds the cell Means are provided for coupling one resonator to a frequency controllable oscillator...

## Atomic frequency standards: A survey

Abstract: The last comprehensive survey on atomic frequency standards was done by McCoubrey [1] This survey reviews the more recent historical background of atomic frequency standards leading to the present developments A discussion of the underlying physical and engineering principles is given...

## Rubidium standard

A rubidium standard or rubidium atomic clock is a frequency standard in which a specified hyperfine transition of electrons in rubidium-87 atoms is used to control the output frequency It is the most inexpensive, compact, and widely produced atomic clock, ....

## Frequency Standards

Cesium (caesium) Standard: The cesium standard is the primary standard of time/frequency It is the standard maintained by over 250+ atomic stations around the world for keeping the UTC The commercially available primary standards have an accuracy of ± 1 in 10 11...

## HP 5060A Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

Prior to working Cesium beam frequency standards the official meter was defined by an invar rod (ie a real physical standard) Today a meter is defined based on the distance that light travels in ,...

## Introduction to Quartz Frequency Standards

An introductory review of atomic frequency standards can be found in reference 44, and reference 45 is a review of the literature up to 1983 (Reference 44 reviews both atomic and quartz frequency standards; the report you are reading is based on the quartz portion of that document)...

## A Survey of Atomic Frequency Standards

The survey reviews the historical background and development of atomic frequency standards leading to the most recent achievements A qualitative discussion of underlying principles is also included...

## Frequency Standards

in atomic frequency standards Its design provides the lowest phase noise, greatest versatility, and easiest path to system integration of any rubidium frequency standard available PRS10 Operation and Design All commercial rubidium frequency standards operate by disciplining a crystal oscillator to the hyperfine transition at...

## Frequency and time

The NRC performs in-house calibrations on a variety of instruments such as commercial cesium atomic frequency standards, rubidium frequency standards, quartz oscillators, signal generators, synthesizers, and electronic counters and timers...

## Atomic Frequency Standards for Ultra

TDA Progress Report 42-91 Atomic Frequency Standards for Ultra-High-Frequency Stability L Maleki, J D Prestage, and G J Dick Communications Systems Research Section In this article, the general features of the l99Hg+ trapped-ion frequency standard are...

## ATOMIC FREQUENCY STANDARDS: A SURVEY

ATOMIC FREQUENCY STANDARDS: A SURVEY* Helmut Hellwig Time and Frequency Division National Bureau of Standards Boulder, Colorado 80302...

## Primary atomic frequency standards at NIST

The development of atomic frequency standards at NIST is discussed and three of the key frequency-standard technologies of the current era are described For each of these technologies, the most recent NIST implementation of the particular type of standard is described in greater detail...

## Model 1083B GPS Satellite

Get atomic frequency references at a fraction of the cost, using Model 1083B GPS Satellite-Controlled Frequency Standard/Comparator Suitable for use as the frequency reference for counters and signal generators, or for multiplication to microwave frequencies, Model 1083B features standard sine wave outputs of 1 Mhz, 5 Mhz and 10 Mhz with outstanding spectral purity and long-term stability...

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